Abstract A 40-year-old woman had persistent Zollinger-Ellison syndrome despite excision of a 4-cm duodenal gastrinoma. Localizing studies including ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, duodenal endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasonography, and intraoperative endoscopic transillumination of the duodenum failed to detect a tumor. Selective intra-arterial methylene blue injection was used to identify a 6-mm gastrinoma in the duodenum, which was locally excised. Postoperatively, the patient had a negative secretin provocative test result. This novel method uses selective arterial secretin injection with hepatic venous gastrin sampling to identify the vessel feeding the gastrinoma. An angiographic catheter is then positioned in this artery. At laparotomy, methylene blue is injected through this catheter to selectively stain the gastrinoma, facilitating its identification. Selective intra-arterial methylene blue injection can enhance intraoperative detection of small gastrinomas and may improve the rate of curative resection in the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Further evaluation of this novel localizing technique is warranted.