Purpose The new consensus classification considers the chronic prostatitis/pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) based on presence or absence of leukocytes in the expressed prostatic secretions, post-massage urine or seminal fluid analysis. We compared classification based on evaluation of these 3 specimens to the traditional classification based on expressed prostatic secretion examination alone. Materials and Methods A prospective clinical and laboratory protocol was used to evaluate symptomatic patients who had no evidence of urethritis, acute bacterial prostatitis or chronic bacterial prostatitis. Results Thorough clinical and microbiological evaluation of 310 patients attending our prostatitis clinic was used to select a population of 140 subjects who provided optimal expressed prostatic secretion, post-massage urine and semen specimens. Inflammation was documented in 111 (26%) of 420 samples, including 39 expressed prostatic secretion samples with 500 or greater leukocytes/mm. 3, 32 post-massage urine samples with 1 or greater leukocytes/mm. 3 and 40 seminal fluid specimens with 1 or greater million leukocytes/mm. 3. Of the 140 subjects 73 (52%) had inflammatory chronic prostatitis/pelvic pain according to the consensus criteria but only 39 (28%) had nonbacterial prostatitis according to traditional expressed prostatic secretion criteria (p <0.001). Conclusions The new consensus concept of inflammatory chronic prostatitis/pelvic pain includes almost twice as many patients as the traditional category of nonbacterial prostatitis.