Publisher Summary This chapter discusses some causes and treatments of male and female infertility. A woman can be infertile for several reasons. Some common reasons are less secretion of hormones from pituitary gland or blocked oviducts. A couple is considered to be infertile, if they have participated in unprotected coitus for a year without becoming pregnant. In about 35% of these couples the problem is with the female, 35% is with the male, 20% is with both the partner, and 10% of the cause is unknown. A couple can also be infertile because of pregnancy wastage or the inability to maintain a pregnancy once established. An infertile male with a low sperm count can be helped by the administration of gonadotropins. Some common treatments used are artificial insemination, which utilizes sperm from the husband or from a donor. In-vitro fertilization is the most frequently used high–technology solution to infertility. Other alternatives for infertile couples include gamete intrafallopian transfer, zygote intrafallopian transfer, and the use of frozen sperm, eggs, or embryos, or hiring a surrogate mother. Infertile couples may also be able to adopt a child.