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Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение высшего профессионального образования "Национальный исследовательский Томский государственный университет"
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  • ВОДА
  • Cognitive Linguistics
  • Structural Semantics
  • Metaphor
  • World Modelling
  • Time
  • Water
  • Linguistics


The anthropocentric paradigm of modern linguistics at the new stage of development caused the necessity for researchers not only to record language facts as dependent on human activity, but also to learn the underlying mechanisms of mind, which form the base of language tools functioning. Within this paradigm, metaphor is considered as a mechanism that reflects one of the basic ways of human thinking, not as a result of reconsidering the word meaning. Thus, metaphor is interpreted as the main principle of world modelling; and metaphorisation mechanism is regarded as the leading interpretation principle for a set of linguo-cognitive phenomena. In the article these ideas are applied to describe the model of time perception in Russian linguistic picture of the world (RLPW). The Russian language contains a broad stratum of metaphorical vocabulary that expresses predicative features of time; for time, among other abstract categories, is chiefly described metaphorically. So, analysing metaphorical nominations that characterise certain aspects of time seems to be most efficient for describing time as an element of RLWP. Time in RLPW can metaphorically be represented by various source images: human beings (время идёт, бежит - 'time goes, runs'), animals (время летит, ползёт - 'time flies, crawls'), wealth (потратить, израсходовать время -' waste, spend time'), etc. Water / liquid is another regular source sphere for time metaphors; its use reflects an immanent feature of time - motion. Time can be characterised as liquid (время течёт, льётся - 'time flows, pours') or as an object moving in water (дни проплывают - 'days float'). Indirectly the source image of liquid can describe the end of a space of time (время тает -'time thaws'). In such interpretation when time is compared with the liquid state of the matter, it means total lack of time for solving tasks; time is enough, if it is compared with the solid state of liquid. Axiologically, the analysed combinations correspond to the general assessment principles of language models of time in RLPW. Slow motion of time means negative assessment of the situation, whereas fast suggests positive estimation. Expressions река времени унесла / умчала ('river of time carried / whirled away') are axiologically monosemantic, for they reflect the destructive changes of the environment, hence being elements of the relevant metaphorical models of time in RLPW. Metaphors that describe the end of a space of time (время тает, испаряется - 'time thaws, evaporates') express negative assessment of events due to the lack of time, which is also a dominant of quantitative models of time (тратить, расходовать время - 'waste, spend time').

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