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SACRAL NERVE ROOT NEUROMODULATION: AN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT FOR REFRACTORY URGE INCONTINENCE

Authors
Journal
The Journal of Urology
0022-5347
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
159
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1097/00005392-199805000-00028
Disciplines
  • Design
  • Medicine
  • Pharmacology

Abstract

Abstract Purpose Sacral foramina implants have been recognized recently as a method for treatment of refractory urinary urge incontinence. We study the outcome of the procedure with in-depth analysis of the results of 18 implanted cases. Materials and Methods Patients with urinary urge incontinence were subjected to percutaneous nerve evaluation of the S3 roots as a temporary screening test to determine response to neuromodulation. Satisfactory responders were implanted with permanent sacral root neuroprosthesis. The study design included comprehensive voiding diaries for 4 consecutive days twice as a baseline, 1 with percutaneous nerve evaluation screening, 1 after the percutaneous nerve evaluation, 1 at the 1, 3 and 6 post-implantation visits, and every 6 months thereafter. Uroflowmetry and quality of life questionnaires were performed at the same intervals. Urodynamic study was done as a baseline and 6 months after implantation of the neuroprosthesis. Results All 18 patients (16 women and 2 men) with refractory urge incontinence received a sacral foramina neuroprosthesis after demonstrating a good response to the percutaneous nerve evaluation. Average patient age at presentation was 42.3 +/− 3.3 years (range 22 to 67) and duration of urinary symptoms was 6.6 +/− 1.3 years (range 1.2 to 18.8). Average followup was 18.8 months (range 3 to 83). Neuromodulation in these patients showed a marked reduction in leakage episodes from 6.49 to 1.98 times per 24 hours and in the leakage severity score. Eight patients became completely dry and 4 had average leakage episodes of 1 or less daily. Patients showed as well a decrease in urinary frequency with an increase in functional bladder capacity. Associated pelvic pain improved substantially. Cystometrograms demonstrated increased volume at first sensation by 50% and increased cystometric capacity by 15% with the disappearance of uninhibited contractions in 1 of the 4 patients who presented with it preoperatively. There was also noticeable improvement in the quality of life. Complication rate was low and none was life threatening. Conclusions Sacral root neuromodulation is an appealing modality for treatment of urge incontinence refractory to conventional pharmacotherapy. The relative simplicity of the technique, promising results and low complication rate make this therapy a likely alternative.

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