Abstract Guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate phosphodiesterase (EC 18.104.22.168) in frog rod outer segment prepared by a sucrose stepwise density gradient method was activated by light in the presence of GTP. Rhodopsin in rod outer segment was solubilized with sucrose laurylmonoester and then purified by concavanalin A-Sepharose column. Addition of photo-bleached preparation of the purified rhodopsin to the rod outer segment, which had been prepared by 43% (w/w) sucrose floatation, caused the activation of phosphodiesterase in the dark, while each component of the photo-product eluted from the column (all- trans retinal and opsin) did not. Regenerated rhodopsin prepared from 11- cis retinal and purified opsin activated phosphosdiesterase when it was bleached. From these facts it is suggested that an intermediate or a process of photolysis of rhodopsin causes activation of phosphodiesterase.