Publisher Summary This chapter focuses directly on the physical design components of crime prevention. Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) helps in making crime harder to commit and making residents feel more secure in their surroundings, and is accomplished by altering the physical environment. Increased lighting, improved locks, stronger doors, use of surveillance equipment, and other physical changes are intended to bring about greater social cohesion, citizen concern and involvement, and reduced crime and fear of crime. But physical design changes, target hardening, and access control serve to isolate people from one another. Crime can be expected to increase where traditional, fortress mentality techniques are employed. An alternative is to emphasize crime prevention techniques that prompt the retention, retrieval, and enhancement of the community. Neighborhood/block watch, citizen patrols, community oriented policing, and similar reactions reflect community oriented responses to crime and fear, and reduce crime and fear over a period of time as the community reasserts itself and takes control of the behavior and actions of persons within the community.