Abstract Bird protection barriers on high speed train bridges may have an impact on the aerodynamic and aeroelastic behaviour of these structures. On the aerodynamic static loads on the bridge deck, the conclusion is that the most porous barriers (barriers with handrails) do not modify substantially the aerodynamic loads; however, barriers with solid screens increase the intensity of these loads, in some cases significantly. No significant difference is found between barriers with straight or curved tubes. Regarding the static load on the train, only barriers with acoustic protection screens decrease the lateral load and the turning moment significantly. Again, no significant difference is found between barriers with straight or curved tubes. Finally, concerning the effect of the barriers on the air flow on the catenaries, the conclusion is that barriers with solid screen produce a very intense perturbation in this flow, both in the windward and leeward catenaries. On the contrary, the barriers with handrails (porous) practically do not alter the flow on the catenaries.