The objective of this research is to understand the subjective process of melancholy, giving as reference the literary work Aurelia, from Gérard de Nerval. The narrator describes his intense and unrequited passion for the poetic muse, who gives title to the work, in the context of nineteenth century romanticism. Through his ?journey to the Spirit world? he pursues a transcendental self-discovery while encompassing dreams and visions of a ?sweet melancholy?. A reading of the narrator?s subjective exploration will elucidate to which degree he succumbs to the melancholic process in his reaction to losing the loved one, whose nature is idealized and refers to a previous loss - archaic, narcissistic. This process can be found in Freud?s psychopathological description in ?Mourning and Melancholy?, an essay from 1917. With an appreciation of psychoanalytic themes such as Narcissism or object relations concerning the subject?s love life, it is possible to comprehend a melancholic universe formed by a symbolic ensemble of elements such as loss, absence, double, death - symbolic or not - which give inspiration for the richest reveries and daydreams. In Aurelia Nerval explores different dimensions of melancholy. For an understanding of some of them, such as the one related to a spiritualized romantic aesthetic from the history of occidental culture, or that of the philosopher specific to his subjective experience, as well as the melancholy pertaining to the Freudian psychopathological dynamic, this research is established by a survey of the history of melancholy?s phenomena. It proceeds according to the literary discourses from the first half of the XIX century on the one hand, when Nerval writes his last work before committing suicide and, on the other hand, psychoanalysis from beginning of XX century, which contemplates a romantic view of melancholy in the referred essay. Such a method allows a definition of what is common between the different discourses following parallel paths towards the profundity of the human soul, and shifts towards what is new in Melancholy in Fundamental Psychopathology. More specifically, for the comprehension of the subjective mechanisms of this classical psychopathology, it follows the Freudian?s approach of literary works as an heuristic resource, whose points of encounter between these different areas of knowledge rely on his presupposition that the poet?s intuition would determine the way to apprehend the essence of human soul. This presupposition is later formulated into a theory pertaining to scientific fields on which Freud wanted to inscribe Psychoanalysis. The research ends with a reference to the present clinical understanding of melancholy and its concern about depression. A kind of contemporary rescue of the romantic point of view with regard to psychoanalysis, whose origins can be found in the reaction against modern Rationalism, is thus contemplated. This controversy can be reinvigorated in the light of Ultra scientism which though deeply empirical is destitute of experience that contemplates human subjectivity and is capable, for example, of formulating psychiatric medicine under the concept of concreteness, promising the suppression or alleviation of symptoms but not of the illness. So this medicine becomes the symbolic amulet - a prop for subjects who suffer contemporary ?soul diseases?