Summary Electrical stimulation of the reticular nucleus of the rat thalamus results in activation of c-fos immunoreactivity in nerve cells of the ipsilateral retrosplenial cortex. The c-fos immunoreactive neurons are mainly concentrated in lamina IV of the retrosplenial cortex. Conversely, electrical stimulation of the retrosplenial cortex induced c-fos immunoreactivity in the ipsilateral reticular nucleus of the thalamus. The results of the electrical stimulation suggest a direct synaptic connection between the cerebral cortex and the ipsilateral reticular thalamic nucleus. Simultaneous immunohistochemical staining proves that the majority of nerve cells and dendro-dendritic terminals in the reticular thalamic nucleus contain parvalbumine and, at the same time, also GABA. The role of GABA-ergic parvalbumine immunoreactive terminals in the reticular thalamic nucleus seems to be related to integration and processing of impulses and attentional gating, distinguishing between noxious and innocuous inputs.