Abstract Membranes of intact rabbit reticulocytes and rat liver mitochondrial membranes oxygenated by the pure reticulocyte lipoxygenase contain 13-keto-9 Z,11 E-octadecadienoic acid and 9-keto-10 E,12 Z-octadecadienoic acid. In mitochondrial membranes not treated with lipoxygenase and in rabbit erythrocyte membranes these products were not detected. The chemical structure of the compounds has been identified by co-chromatography with authentic standards on various types of HPLC columns, by uv and ir spectroscopy and GC/MS. In the membranes of rabbit reticulocytes up to 2% of the linoleate residues are present as its 9- and 13-keto derivatives. Most of the keto compounds (up to 90%) are esterified in the membrane ester lipids, only about 10% were found in the free fatty acid fraction. It is proposed that the keto dienoic fatty acids are formed via decomposition of hydroperoxy polyenoic fatty acids originating from the oxygenation of the membrane lipids by the reticulocyte lipoxygenase.