Abstract Maintenance of normal blood glucose levels is important for avoiding chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular problems, and obesity. Type 2 diabetes is one of the major health problems affecting the world population and this condition can be exacerbated by poor diet, low physical activity, and genetic abnormalities. Food plays an important role in the management of blood glucose and associated complications in diabetes. This is attributed to the ability of food-based ingredients to modulate blood glucose without causing any adverse health consequences. This chapter focuses on four important food groups such as cereals, legumes, fruits, and spices that have active ingredients such as soluble dietary fiber, polyphenols, and antinutrients with the ability to reduce glycemic and insulin response in humans. Other food ingredients such as simple sugars, sugar alcohols, and some proteins are also discussed in moderation.