Results of a determination of strain perpendicular to the surface and of the damage in (100) Si single crystals irradiated by 250-keV Ar+ ions at 77 K are presented. Double-crystal x-ray diffraction and dynamical x-ray diffraction theory are used. Trial strain and damage distributions were guided by transmission electron microscope observations and Monte Carlo simulation of ion energy deposition. The perpendicular strain and damage profiles, determined after sequentially removing thin layers of Ar+-implanted Si, were shown to be self-consistent, proving the uniqueness of the deconvolution. Agreement between calculated and experimental rocking curves is obtained with strain and damage distributions which closely follow the shape of the trim simulations from the maximum damage to the end of the ion range but fall off more rapidly than the simulation curve near the surface. Comparison of the trim simulation and the strain profile of Ar+-implanted Si reveals the importance of annealing during and after implantation and the role of complex defects in the final residual strain distribution.