The author considers the specific sociological aspects of living on the level of counties as newer territorial and political entities in Croatia. He uses the example of the Primorsko-Goranska County, showing that this county consists of fundamentally different areas, and thus different problems of living. The county has three basic parts: Gorski Kotar, the coastal area with the main and largest city Rijeka, and the islands. Gorski Kotar and the islands are considerably depopulated, while the population in the coastal area, due to the influence of tourism and tertiary activities, is at a standstill and is even growing in places. It is also growing in some island towns. The article indicates the most important elements of town planning and a general policy that might change the situation. This policy, for example, includes the promotion of indigenous activities, tourist develpment, stimulating immigration, giving privileges to undeveloped areas, and so on.