The current paper examines the potential utility of marital therapy in the treatment of depression. First, three clinically useful models are outlined and practical concerns related to the use of marital therapy in the treatment of depression are addressed. Second, available outcome and process research on the use of marital therapy as a treatment for depression is reviewed in detail. We attend especially to the issue of specifying the population likely to respond most favorably to behavioral marital therapy (BMT). We conclude that BMT is a viable and useful form of intervention for a substantial subpopulation of depressed persons. Recommendations for future research are provided.