Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-borne retrovirus that exploits the adaptive immune system. It has recently been shown that MMTV activates B cells via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a molecule involved in innate immune responses. Here, we show that direct virus binding to TLR4 induced maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and up-regulated expression of the MMTV entry receptor (CD71) on these cells. In vivo, MMTV increased the number of dendritic cells in neonatal Peyer's patches and their expression of CD71; both these effects were dependent on TLR4. Thus, retroviral signaling through TLRs plays a critical role in dendritic-cell participation during infection.