Abstract The relationship between the in vitro susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum isolates to the quinoline antimalarials chloroquine (CQ), mefloquine (MQ), and quinine (QN), and pfcrt and pfmdr1 gene polymorphisms were investigated. Field isolates (110 samples) were collected from various endemic areas of Thailand throughout 2002–2004. The pfcrt 76T allele was identified in 109 isolates (99.1%) while pfcrt 76K was found in a single (0.9%) isolate. The pfmdr 86N, 86Y, and the combination (86N + 86Y) alleles were identified in 83 (75.5%), 22 (20%), and 5 (4.5%) isolates, respectively. The pfmdr1 1042N, 1042D alleles and a mixture (1042N + 1042D) of the alleles were found in 94 (85.5%), 12 (10.9%) and 4 (3.6%) isolates, respectively. The pfmdr1 1246Y allele was detected in a single (0.9%) isolate. The pfmdr1 gene polymorphisms (86-1042-1246) was grouped into seven haplotypes as follows: N-N-D (68 isolates; 61.2%), Y-N-D (22 isolates; 19.8%), N-D-D (11 isolates; 9.9%), N-D-Y (1 isolate; 0.9%), N/Y-N-D (4 isolates; 3.6%), N-N/D-D (3 isolates; 2.7%), and N/Y-N/D-D (1 isolate; 0.9%). Eight different combinations of pfcrt– pfmdr1 genotypes were observed. Only one CQ-, MQ- and QN-sensitive isolate was found at the Thai–Laos border and no cases of QN resistance were found in this study.