Abstract The co-localization of Neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and somatostatin (SOM) in rat hippocampal cells was studied in double labelling experiments using a combination of antibodies against the two peptides on the same tissue section. The individual hippocampal subfields show large variations in the relative number of NPY- and SOM-immunoreactive (-i) neurons. While the entorhinal area is far richer in SOM as compared to NPY-i cells, NPY-i cells predominate in all subfields (e.g. regio superior, regio inferior) of Ammon's horn. Co-localization of both peptides in single neurons was highest in regio inferior and in the area dentata and lowest in the retrohippocampal structures. In the dorsal hippocampus, the number of SOM-i cells containing NPY-i was higher than the number of NPY-i cells containing SOM-i. This pattern was reversed in the retrohippocampal region. At ventral levels the incidence of colocalization of NPY-and SOM-i in single cells increased in all hippocampal subfields.