Seven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Listeria spp. that were reactive with live Listeria spp. were developed. Two of these MAbs (55-8 and 55-37) were members of the immunoglobulin M class, and all other MAbs were members of the immunoglobulin G class. MAb 55-23 reacted with 148 of 157 strains tested. MAb 34-51 reacted with serotype 1/2a, 1/2b, and 1/2c strains and exhibited a scattered reaction pattern with strains belonging to other serotypes. MAb 55-44 reacted with all of the strains belonging to serotype 4b tested. MAb 55-4 reacted with all of the serotype 1/2a isolates tested, although reactivity with other isolates also was observed. The other MAbs exhibited scattered reaction patterns. No correlation of reactivity pattern with serotype was found. Marked differences were observed between the reactivities of MAbs as determined by a magnetic immunoluminescence assay and a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only MAb 55-23 exhibited minor reactivity with three Streptococcus spp. isolates, while no reactivity was observed with six Bacillus spp. strains, one Escherichia coli strain, and one Citrobacter sp. strain. In Western blots (immunoblots) MAbs 55-23, 55-44, and 34-9 exhibited reactivity; all other MAbs were negative in this assay.