Abstract Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a global disease with high economic and social burden. A potential cure for type 1 diabetes is pancreatic islet transplantation. Despite recent improvements, islets are faced with various types of stress related to the isolation and transplantation procedure. Oxidative stress plays an essential role in cell damage during islet isolation and transplantation procedures. In this article, we hypothesise that a combination of cerium and yttrium oxide nanoparticles, as a power antioxidant with free-radical-scavenging activity, because of enhancing the survival or viability of cells in vitro can improve islet transplantation. No doubt, administration of this improvement can be used in diabetes treatment.