Currently, there is no effective treatment for the marked neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD) or ischemic stroke. However, recent studies have shown that new neurons are continuously generated by endogenous neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain, including the human brain. Because some of these new neurons migrate to the injured striatum and differentiate into mature neurons, such new neurons may be able to replace degenerated neurons and improve or repair neurological deficits. To establish a neuroregenerative therapy using this endogenous system, endogenous regulatory mechanisms that can be co-opted for efficient regenerative interventions must be understood, along with any potential drawbacks. Here, we review current knowledge on the generation of new neurons in the adult brain and discuss their potential for use in replacing striatal neurons lost to neurodegenerative diseases, including HD, and to ischemic stroke.