Abstract The emergence of shotgun proteomics has facilitated the numerous biological discoveries made by proteomic studies. However, comprehensive proteomic analysis remains challenging and shotgun proteomics is a continually changing field. This review details the recent developments in shotgun proteomics and describes emerging technologies that will influence shotgun proteomics going forward. In addition, proteomic studies of integral membrane proteins remain challenging due to the hydrophobic nature in integral membrane proteins and their general low abundance levels. However, there have been many strategies developed for enriching, isolating and separating membrane proteins for proteomic analysis that have moved this field forward. In summary, while shotgun proteomics is a widely used and mature technology, the continued pace of improvements in mass spectrometry and proteomic technology and methods indicate that future studies will have an even greater impact on biological discovery.