Abstract Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), an extracellular matrix protein, has a multimodular structure and each domain specifies a distinct biological function through interaction with a specific ligand. In this study we found that exogenously added TSP-1 inhibits phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/LPS-induced homotypic aggregation of human monocytic U937 cells, whereas the 70-kDa fragment of TSP-1 generated by the proteolytic cleavage of the intact molecule promotes the homotypic aggregation. The aggregation was also inhibited by anti-CD47 mAb or the 4N1K peptide, of which sequence is derived from the CD47-binding site of TSP-1 and absent in the 70-kDa fragment. In contrast, the augmented cell aggregation by the 70-kDa fragment was hampered by anti-CD36 mAb or antibody against the CD36-binding site of TSP-1. The cell aggregation of U937 cells was completely blocked, even in the presence of the 70-kDa fragment, by mAb against leukocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). We therefore propose that TSP-1 may regulate LFA-1/ICAM-1-mediated cell adhesion of monocytes/macrophages by either the inhibitory effect through CD47 or the promoting effect through CD36 depending on which domain/fragment is functional in a given biological setting.