Abstract Glutaredoxins (Grx’s) and thioredoxins (Trx’s) play important roles in maintaining intracellular thiol-redox homeostasis by scavenging reactive oxygen species. However, few Grx’s and Trx’s have been functionally characterized in Apis cerana cerana. In this study, we identified three genes, AccGrx1, AccGrx2, and AccTrx1, and investigated their connection to antioxidant defense. AccGrx1 and AccGrx2 were mainly detected in dark-eyed pupae, whereas AccTrx1 was highly concentrated in 15-day postemergence adults. The expression levels of AccGrx1 and AccTrx1 were the highest in epidermis. However, the expression level of AccGrx2 was the highest in muscle, followed by the epidermis. AccGrx1, AccGrx2, and AccTrx1 were induced by 4, 16, and 42°C; H2O2; and pesticide (acaricide, paraquat, cyhalothrin, and phoxime) treatments and repressed by UV light. AccGrx1 and AccGrx2 were upregulated by HgCl2 treatment, whereas AccTrx1 was downregulated. We investigated the knockdown of AccGrx1, AccGrx2, AccTpx-3, and AccTrx1 in A. cerana cerana and surprisingly found that knockdown of the these four genes enhanced the enzymatic activities of CAT and POD; the metabolite contents of hydrogen peroxide, carbonyls, and ascorbate; and the ratios of GSH/GSSG and NADP+/NADPH. In addition, we also analyzed the transcripts of other antioxidant genes and found that some were upregulated and others were downregulated, revealing that the upregulated genes are involved in compensating for the knockdown of AccGrx1, AccGrx2, AccTpx-3, and AccTrx1. Taken together, these results suggest that AccGrx1, AccGrx2, AccTpx-3, and AccTrx1 may play critical roles in antioxidant defense.