Abstract The effect of ischemia on arterial endothelial permeability was assessed by surgically interrupting arterial blood flow for 45 min in the left carotid artery of 12 foxhounds. The right carotid artery served as control. Twenty-four hours before sacrificing the animals at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively, Evans blue dye (1.5 ml/kg) was administered intravenously. Carotid arteries were harvested, opened, and scanned with a reflectometer to measure Evans blue dye uptake, and scanning electron microscopy was performed on a section of tissue from each harvested vessel. A statistically significant increase in permeability of the ischemic vessel occurred at 1 day (79 ± 42% (SD)), 1 week (186 ± 75%), and 1 month (229 ± 125%), but was not present at 3 months (7 ± 8%) postinjury. Scanning electron microscopic examination of all specimens was essentially normal. This study demonstrates that arterial endothelium has increased permeability at 1 month following a brief ischemic period. What effect this ischemia-induced endothelial dysfunction will have on lipid uptake by the arterial wall will be the subject of future study.