Abstract Electrochemistry is one of the cleanest technologies known; its main competitor as a clean technology is catalytic oxidation or reduction. Its use may help make the chemical industry less polluting. With electrochemistry, industry can achieve direct oxidation or reduction of substrates and avoid the use of potentially toxic metal reagents, and recycle spent processing reagents so that they do not need to be discarded. Compounds may also be prepared by using electrochemically recycled redox reagents. The reactions can be carried out in a range of modern electrochemical cells which give better flow characteristics and lower power consumption. Examples are given of electrochemical processes developed by, among others, ICI, BASF and EA Technology.