Rationale and Objectives The purpose of the study is to determine if transitional year program (TYP) requirements foster realization of standards of excellence and clinical relevance for future radiologists and to explore demographic and economic factors pertinent to TYPs. Materials and Methods A list of accredited TYPs were obtained from the American Medical Association's Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Directory 2006–2007. Specialty distribution of TYP graduates was examined from statistics provided by the ACGME, and data from the 2007 Main Residency Match was analyzed. Data derived from a concurrent survey of the perception of the value of internship sent to all current radiology residents and fellows was assessed. The institutional costs of employing TYP interns versus physician assistants were also calculated. Results Forty-one of the 125 TYPs lack residencies in internal medicine (IM), general surgery (GS), or both, and approximately two-third of these lack full medical school affiliation. The interns who will graduate from these 41 programs account for 103 of the 1,128 radiology residents in their post-graduate year 2. Despite the longest elective time offered in TYPs compared to conventional preliminary programs, current radiology trainees who had participated in preliminary IM or GS internships were more satisfied compared to trainees completing TYPs. Conclusions The requirements of the transitional internship and compliance with them need to be carefully assessed to determine their efficacy. Despite the strong economic impetus for hiring TYP interns, the availability of open slots in existing preliminary programs in IM and GS, coupled with radiology residents' greater level of satisfaction with traditional over transitional internships, makes the existence of TYPs less compelling.