Évolution de la qualité de l'eau dans le réseau de distribution de la ville de Montréal

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Évolution de la qualité de l'eau dans le réseau de distribution de la ville de Montréal

Université du Québec - INRS-Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE)
DOI: 10.7202/705275ar
  • Distribution System
  • Aldehyde
  • Regrowth
  • Trihalomethane
  • RéSeau De Distribution
  • Carbone Organique BiodéGradable
  • Biodegradable Organic Carbon
  • Sous Produits D'Oxydation
  • Recroissance BactéRienne
  • Oxidation By-Products


Studies were performed to follow the changes in water quality along a distribution system. The distribution system under study is divided into two parts: main pipes starting from the plant (from 2 700 mm to 900 mm diameter) feeding a small pipes sector (200 mm and 300 mm diameter). Residence times range from 0 to 13.6 hours in main pipes and from 13.6 h to 18.4 h in small pipes. All pipes are made of steel or ductile iron and their interior is lined with concrete; there is therefore little corrosion. Since the raw water is of such high quality, the treatment plant is very simple: a direct filtration on sand followed by ozonation and chlorine disinfection. Samples were taken on 14 occasions, during a full year period, in the distribution system and in the treatment plant after chlorination. These last samples were incubated in clean flasks at the network temperature. Measurements of temperature, pH, disinfection by-products (trihalomethanes, aldehydes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetones and chloropicrine), total organic carbon (TOC), biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) and number of bacteria (heterotrophic plate count and total direct count by epifluorescence) were completed.The distribution network seems to have very little effect on chlorine demand and disinfection by-products. Results from water incubated in flasks are similar to those from distribution network. After more than 18 hours contact time, the chlorine residual is still higher than 0.2 mg/l in most of the samples taken in the distribution network and in the flask. It should be noted that the initial chlorine concentrations range from 0.65 mg/l (cold water) to 1.00 mg/l (warm water). Chlorine demand and trihalomethane (THM) curves are typical, a rapid increase with time followed by a relatively stable level. THM concentrations in the distribution network are low: a typical value of 14 µg/l after 13.6 hours contact time is detected. The maximum concentration of 43 µg/l of total THM was measured in a dead end. In this latter sample, 42 % of the THM was present as bromodichloromethane and 39 % as chloroform. Other by-products such as haloacetonitrile, haloacetone and chloropicrine were always detected in very small concentrations.Aldehyde concentrations in treated water were low, between 21 and 42 µg/l. These concentrations were stable throughout the distribution system. Fixed and free biomass seems to have very little effect on these biodegradable compounds. These results were confirmed by BDOC results. BDOC in treated water ranges from 0.2 to 0.45 mg/l and remains stable in the distribution system. These low BDOC concentrations and the chlorine residual of approximately 0.2 mg/l seem to be sufficient to prevent regrowth in the distribution system. Total direct counts by epifluorescence showed almost no increase of bacterial density except for the July 11th sample. This is the only day where the free chlorine residual dropped below 0.2 mg/l, with values of free chlorine residual dropping as low as 0.16 mg/l.

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