s age and sex. The prevalence and predictors of ARIs were measured using descriptive and multivariate regression methods. The prevalence of both fever (31.00% in 1997 vs. 36.76% in 2014) and dyspnea (39.27% in 1997 vs. 43.27% in 2014) has increased gradually since 1997, and tended to be higher in households in the lower wealth quintiles. Multivariable analysis revealed that higher maternal educational status, access to improved water and sanitation facilities, and living in households in higher wealth quintiles had protective effects against both fever and dyspnea. Findings suggested a significantly negative association between lacking access to improved water and sanitation and use of biomass fuel with ARI symptoms. However, no sex difference was observed in these associations. Based on the findings, childhood ARI prevention strategies should address the risk factors stemming from parental socioeconomic marginalisation, household water and sanitation poverty, and use of unclean fuel.