Here we describe Bulbophyllum mascarenense sp. nov., a new endemic species from the Mascarenes, and assess its conservation status. This taxon has previously been confused with B. nutans var. nutans and has also been erroneously identified in the Mascarenes as B. minutum auct. non Thouars, the latter a Malagasy endemic. Bulbophyllum mascarenense is known from tropical humid native vegetation between 400 and 1200 m elevation, being abundant on the island of Réunion, but less so on Mauritius. Using the Red List Categories and Criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature, this new species should be considered as “Least Concern”.