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A budget impact analysis of substituting sitagliptin with liraglutide in type 2 diabetes from a private health insurance perspective in Egypt

  • Elsisi, Gihan Hamdy1, 2
  • Afify, Ayman3
  • Abgad, Ashraf4
  • Zakaria, Ibtissam5
  • Nasif, Nabil6
  • Ibrahim, Hani Naiem7
  • Raafat, Nabil8
  • Carapinha, João L.9
  • 1 HTA Office, LLC, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 2 Cairo University & American University in Cairo, 51 Helmy Hassan Aly St., Mostafa Elnahas, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 3 Novonordisk, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 4 Alex University, Alexandria, Egypt , Alexandria (Egypt)
  • 5 Cairo University, Giza, Egypt , Giza (Egypt)
  • 6 Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 7 Diabetes and Neuropathy Clinic, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 8 Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt , Cairo (Egypt)
  • 9 North-Eastern University, Boston, USA , Boston (United States)
Published Article
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
BioMed Central
Publication Date
Jan 15, 2022
DOI: 10.1186/s12962-021-00335-y
Springer Nature
  • Research


IntroductionType 2 diabetes mellitus causes a sizable burden globally from both health and economic points of view. This study aimed to assess the budget impact of substituting sitagliptin with liraglutide versus other glucose-lowering drugs from the private health insurance perspective in Egypt over a 3-year time horizon.MethodsTwo budget impact models were compared with the standard of care (metformin, pioglitazone, gliclazide, insulin glargine, repaglinide, and empagliflozin) administered in addition to liraglutide or sitagliptin versus the standard of care with placebo. A gradual market introduction of liraglutide or sitagliptin was assumed, and the existing market shares for the other glucose-lowering drugs were provided and validated by the Expert Panel. The event rates were extracted from the LEADER and TECOS trials. Direct and mortality costs were measured. Sensitivity analyses were performed.ResultsThe estimated target population of 120,574 type 2 diabetic adult patients was associated with cardio vascular risk. The budget impact per patient per month for liraglutide is EGP29 ($6.7), EGP39 ($9), and EGP49 ($11.3) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years, respectively. The budget impact per patient per month for sitagliptin is EGP11 ($2.5), EGP14 ($3.2), and EGP18 ($4.1) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd years, respectively. Furthermore, adoption of liraglutide resulted in 203 fewer deaths and 550 avoided hospitalizations, while sitagliptin resulted in 43 increased deaths and 14 avoided hospitalizations. The treatment costs of liraglutide use are mostly offset by substantial savings due to fewer cardiovascular-related events, avoided mortality and avoided hospitalizations over 3 years.ConclusionAdding liraglutide resulted in a modest budget impact, suggesting that the upfront drug costs were offset by budget savings due to fewer cardiovascular-related complications and deaths avoided compared to the standard of care. Sitagliptin resulted in a small budget impact but was associated with increased deaths and fewer hospitalizations avoided.

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