Several case reports have suggested that bronchogenic carcinoma occurs more frequently in young patients who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive. We investigated the incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma and its clinical presentations in young patients at risk for HIV infection. The tumor registry of Bellevue Hospital was reviewed, and 261 cases of bronchogenic carcinoma during the period from 1976 to 1979 (pre-AIDS period) and 232 during the period from 1987 to 1990 (AIDS period) were identified. These cases were stratified into age groups: 45 or younger, 46 to 55, 56 to 65, and 66 years or older. All patients aged 45 years or younger in the AIDS period were subdivided by HIV risk, and clinical characteristics were compared among the subgroups. Results revealed no increased incidence of bronchogenic carcinoma from the pre-AIDS period compared with the AIDS period. These results suggest that HIV seropositivity is not a risk factor for bronchogenic carcinoma.