Previous studies by us or others have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was activated by fumonisin 1 (FB1) exposure, which is considered to be a critical event in the FB1-induced toxic effect. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying FB1-induced ER stress-mediated liver toxicity remain elusive. The objectives of the present study were designed to address the following issues: (1) the contribution of each arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR); (2) the downstream targets of ER stress that mediated FB1-induced liver toxicity; and (3) the relationship between ER stress and oxidative stress triggered by FB1. We also investigated whether the inhibition of ER stress by its inhibitor could offer protection against FB1-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo, which has not been critically addressed previously. The results showed that the activation of the IRE1α axis, but not of the PERK axis, of UPR contributed to FB1-induced ER stress-mediated hepatocyte toxicity; the activation of the Bax/Bak-mediated mitochondrial pathway lay downstream of IRE1α to trigger mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in response to FB1; FB1-induced oxidative stress and ER stress augmented each other through a positive feedback mechanism; tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA)-mediated ER stress inactivation is an effective approach to counteract FB1-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. The data of the present study allow us to better understand the mechanisms of FB1-induced hepatotoxicity.