Abstract Objective: To systematically review evidence related to nutritional and cardiometabolic outcomes in children born at term and small for gestational age and the association with breastfeeding. Source of data: Two independent reviewers searched the MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO, and Embase databases without time or language restrictions. The PRISMA tool was used, and studies that evaluated infants born at term and small for gestational age, breastfed, and with an evaluation of cardiometabolic outcomes were included. Studies with preterm infants, those that did not have information on breastfeeding, and those with lack of evaluation of the outcome variables were excluded. Also excluded were review articles, editorials, and series of cases. Summary of data: Only seven articles were found that met the abovementioned criteria. There was a great variability in the type of evaluation, as well as in the age of these children. It was demonstrated that breastfeeding promoted growth without body composition alteration and without increased insulin resistance in children with exclusive breastfeeding, when compared to children receiving a higher calorie formula, except for one article that observed an increase in fat mass in exclusively breastfed children. Conclusion: Breastfeeding seems to be a safe feeding practice for infants born at term and small for gestational age, showing no association with deleterious short-term outcomes. Breastfeeding stimulation in these populations seems to be a way of preventing the health problems associated with the high risk of chronic noncommunicable diseases and obesity.