The clinical problems encountered in the reconstruction of breasts of patients who have undergone mastectomy for cancer are presented. The indications and contraindications for reconstruction of the breast are arbitrarily defined. Various methods are available to reconstruct the breast. We favor implantation of a preformed silicone prosthesis under the skin and subcutaneous tissue overlying either the pectoralis major muscle or the chest wall. The advantages of this procedure outweigh those of other methods. Seven cases are presented to illustrate our experience in this rehabilitative procedure. It is suggested that breast reconstruction should be offered to a much higher proportion of patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer.