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Brain regulatory T cells

Authors
  • Liston, Adrian;
  • Pasciuto, Emanuela; 61796;
  • Fitzgerald, Denise C.;
  • Yshii, Lidia; 127410;
Publication Date
May 01, 2024
Source
Lirias
Keywords
License
Unknown
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Abstract

The brain, long thought to be isolated from the peripheral immune system, is increasingly recognized to be integrated into a systemic immunological network. These conduits of immune-brain interaction and immunosurveillance processes necessitate the presence of complementary immunoregulatory mechanisms, of which brain regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are likely a key facet. Treg cells represent a dynamic population in the brain, with continual influx, specialization to a brain-residency phenotype and relatively rapid displacement by newly incoming cells. In addition to their functions in suppressing adaptive immunity, an emerging view is that Treg cells in the brain dampen down glial reactivity in response to a range of neurological insults, and directly assist in multiple regenerative and reparative processes during tissue pathology. The utility and malleability of the brain Treg cell population make it an attractive therapeutic target across the full spectrum of neurological conditions, ranging from neuroinflammatory to neurodegenerative and even psychiatric diseases. Therapeutic modalities currently under intense development include Treg cell therapy, IL-2 therapy to boost Treg cell numbers and multiple innovative approaches to couple these therapeutics to brain delivery mechanisms for enhanced potency. Here we review the state of the art of brain Treg cell knowledge together with the potential avenues for future integration into medical practice. / status: Published online

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