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Brain Organoids: Human Neurodevelopment in a Dish.

Authors
  • Benito-Kwiecinski, Silvia1
  • Lancaster, Madeline A1
  • 1 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Publisher
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Publication Date
Aug 03, 2020
Volume
12
Issue
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a035709
PMID: 31767649
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The human brain is often described as the most complex organ in our body. Because of the limited accessibility of living brain tissue, human-specific features of neurodevelopment and disease remain largely unknown. The ability of induced pluripotent stem cells to self-organize into 3D brain organoids has revolutionized approaches to studying brain development in vitro. This review will first look at the history of studying neural development in a dish and how organoids came to be. We evaluate the ability of brain organoids to recapitulate key developmental events, focusing on the generation of various regional identities, cytoarchitecture, cell diversity, features of neuronal maturation, and circuit formation. We also consider the limitations of the model and review recent approaches to improve reproducibility and the healthy maturation of brain organoids. Copyright © 2020 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

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