The neurotoxicity of aluminium (Al) involves bundling of neurofilaments, increased chromatin binding and decreased protein synthesis in Al injected rabbits. Thus, using an amphipathic Al ligand, maltol, experiments were carried out to examine whether or not administration of Al to lactating mother rabbits reduces brain protein synthesis in their offspring. Lactating mother rabbits received s.c. injections 3 times weekly of aluminium (Al) maltolate (1 mg Al/kg body wt) or an equivalent weight of maltol, for 4 weeks post-partum. Polysome preparations were obtained from the brain of their infants in order to assess mRNA translation in cell-free protein synthesizing systems. The brain polysomes showed a statistically significant reduction in the incorporation of [14C]leucine into protein. The poly (A)+ and poly (A)- fractions obtained from these polysomes showed reductions of 44% or more in the incorporation of [35S]methionine into protein. A variety of products separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis all exhibited decreased labelling. These experiments suggest that infant rabbits exposed to a highly neurotoxic form of Al in milk exhibit changes in brain protein synthesis which resemble those in infants injected directly with Al.