Human polycystic lipomembraneous osteodysplasia with sclerosing leukoencephalopathy, also known as Nasu-Hakola disease, has been described to be associated with mutations affecting the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing KARAP/DAP12 immunoreceptor gene. Patients present bone fragilities and severe neurological alterations leading to presenile dementia. Here we investigated whether the absence of KARAP/DAP12-mediated signals in loss-of-function (KΔ75) mice also leads to bone and central nervous system pathological features. Histological analysis of adult KΔ75 mice brains revealed a diffuse hypomyelination predominating in anterior brain regions. As this was not accompanied by oligodendrocyte degeneration or microglial cell activation it suggests a developmental defect of myelin formation. Interestingly, in postnatal KΔ75 mice, we observed a dramatic reduction in microglial cell numbers similar to in vitro microglial cell differentiation impairment. Our results raise the intriguing possibility that defective microglial cell differentiation might be responsible for abnormal myelin development. Histomorphometry revealed that bone remodeling is also altered, because of a resorption defect, associated with a severe block of in vitro osteoclast differentiation. In addition, we show that, among monocytic lineages, KARAP/DAP12 specifically controls microglial and osteoclast differentiation. Our results confirm that KARAP/DAP12-mediated signals play an important role in the regulation of both brain and bone homeostasis. Yet, important differences exist between the symptoms observed in Nasu-Hakola patients and KΔ75 mice.