Bone disorders such as osteopenia, osteoporosis, and osteonecrosis have been reported in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the etiology and mechanism of these disorders are unknown. The prevalence estimates vary widely among studies and may be influenced by the presence or absence of antiretroviral therapy and lipodystrophy, severity of HIV disease, and overlapping bone loss risk factors. Addressing potential underlying bone disease risk factors (e.g., smoking and alcohol intake), evaluating calcium and vitamin D intake, and performing dual x-ray absorptiometry in patients with HIV who have risks for bone disease are important strategies in preventing osteopenia and osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients. Management of osteopenia and osteoporosis is still being evaluated. Administration of bisphosphonates (e.g., alendronate), with calcium and vitamin D supplementation, may be reasonable in treating osteoporosis; however, surgical intervention is the only method for treating symptomatic osteonecrosis.