This study measured the bonding strength between alkyl-2-cyanoacrylates and bone, and examined how treatment of the bone surface with acid, and prolonged exposure to moisture, affected this strength. The initial strength of all cyanoacrylates was high (9.6-11.2 N/mm2). In long-term experiments under water, n- and i-butylcyanoacrylates lost their strength at a far slower rate than ethylcyanoacrylates. However, the butylcyanoacrylates also showed a decrease of 15% in strength after three weeks. Pretreatment of the bone surface with acid did not have a marked effect on bonding strength, although SEM investigation revealed that the acid treatment had increased the porosity of the bone surface. A study of the fracture surface proved that the adhesive film tended to loosen or break after 3 to 6 weeks under water. The decrease in the bonding strength was probably due to the degradation of the adhesive film in water which loosened mechanical bonds between the bone and adhesive. Considering clinical use it would be necessary to achieve better long-term strength.