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Bombesin and nutrients independently and additively regulate hormone release from GIP/Ins cells.

  • Li, Lin
  • Wice, Burton M
Published Article
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2005
PMID: 15383372


Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulates glucose homeostasis and high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Therefore, elucidating the mechanisms that regulate GIP release is important. GIP is produced by K cells, a specific subtype of small intestinal enteroendocrine (EE) cell. Bombesin-like peptides produced by enteric neurons and luminal nutrients stimulate GIP release in vivo. We previously showed that PMA, bombesin, meat hydrolysate, glyceraldehyde, and methylpyruvate increase hormone release from a GIP-producing EE cell line (GIP/Ins cells). Here we demonstrate that bombesin and nutrients additively stimulate hormone release from GIP/Ins cells. In various cell systems, bombesin and PMA regulate cell physiology by activating PKD signaling in a PKC-dependent fashion, whereas nutrients regulate cell physiology by inhibiting AMPK signaling. Western blot analyses of GIP/Ins cells using antibodies specific for activated and/or phosphorylated forms of PKD and AMPK and one substrate for each kinase revealed that bombesin and PMA, but not nutrients, activated PKC, but not PKD. Conversely, nutrients, but not bombesin or PMA, inhibited AMPK activity. Pharmacological studies showed that PKC inhibition blocked bombesin- and PMA-stimulated hormone release, but AMPK activation failed to suppress nutrient-stimulated hormone secretion. Forced expression of constitutively active vs. dominant negative PKDs or AMPKs failed to perturb bombesin- or nutrient-stimulated hormone release. Thus, in GIP/Ins cells, PKC regulates bombesin-stimulated hormone release, whereas nutrients may control hormone release by regulating the activity of AMPK-related kinases, rather than AMPK itself. These results strongly suggest that K cells in vivo independently respond to neuronal vs. nutritional stimuli via two distinct signaling pathways.


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