Bombesin (BN)-like peptides and receptors for these peptides are widely distributed in mammalian peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. The physiological and behavioural functions of these peptides have been clarified by both in vivo and in vitro studies. In spite of intensive investigations, the functions of endogenous BN-like peptides remain unclear. In order to specify these functions, our group and another laboratory generated by gene targeting mutant mice that lack one of the three BN-like peptide receptors found in mammals, ie neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R; BB1), gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R; BB2), or bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3; BB3). Using these mutant mouse, we have found unexpected phenotypes, such as hyperphagia and obesity in the BRS-3-deficient mouse, and abnormal social behaviour in the GRP-R-deficient mouse. In the present study, we present our most recent findings in addition to previous studies and discuss the functions of BN-like peptides related to feeding and social behaviour from the point of view of knock-out mice studies.