Background: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy is usually stopped after linear growth completion in patients with growth hormone deficiency. In patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD), the long-term effects of discontinuation of rhGH replacement are unknown. Methods: In this study, the anthropometric and metabolic parameters of 24 male patients with adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD) due to MPHD in childhood after cessation of rhGH therapy for a mean of 7.1 years were measured and compared with 35 age-matched controls. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Results: In the AGHD group, body mass index (BMI) was significantly increased and 29.2% had obesity. The AGHD group had a 17.7 cm increase in waist circumference (WC). The fat free mass (FFM) was significantly lower in the AGHD group. Both the fat mass (FM) and percentage of fat mass (FM%) were significantly increased in the AGHD group. Both the systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic pressure were significantly lower in AGHD group. The lipid profile was generally similar in both groups, except for a decrease of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the AGHD group. There was significant hyperuricemia in the AGHD group. Conclusions: Cessation of rhGH leads to a significant increase of FM in early adulthood in male patients with childhood-onset MPHD (CO-MPHD).