Excess fat in meat products has been identified as a dietary problem by public health officials. The meat animal industry has responded during the last 25 years to concerns about excess fat intake from animal products by implementing strategies to depress fat deposition and increase lean (protein) tissue gain in meat animals. The most successful strategy to date is the use of large, late-maturing animals for meat production. At desired market weights, these animals are much leaner than smaller, early-maturing animals. In addition, exogenous agents such as anabolic steroids (FDA approved for cattle) have been used to increase lean gain and depress fat deposition in cattle. Growth hormone (GH) and beta-adrenergic agonists (beta AA) are not yet approved by the FDA, but if/when approved would also markedly increase lean gain and depress fat deposition. Both GH and beta AA are called partitioning agents because they partition nutrients and energy toward lean (protein) accretion and dramatically lower fat deposition. Contingent on approval by the FDA and subsequent adoption of partitioning agents by the animal industry would result in meat products containing less and 30% of total calories from fat.