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Bloodwood: the composition and secreting-site of the characteristic red exudate that gives the name to the Swartzia species (Fabaceae).

Authors
  • de Oliveira, Carolina Alcantara1
  • Mansano, Vidal de Freitas2
  • Teixeira, Simone Pádua3
  • Brandes, Arno Fritz das Neves4
  • Baratto, Leopoldo Clemente1
  • Leitão, Suzana Guimarães1
  • Santana, Michele Nunes1
  • Rodrigues, Igor Almeida1
  • Paulino, Juliana Villela5
  • 1 Departamento de Produtos Naturais e Alimentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio De Janeiro, RJ, 21941-902, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 2 Instituto de Pesquisas Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro, DIPEQ, Rua Pacheco Leão 915, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, 22460-030, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 3 Departamento de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Av. do Café, s/n, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 4 Departamento de Biologia Geral, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Outeriro São João Batista, s/n, Niterói, RJ, 24020-141, Brazil. , (Brazil)
  • 5 Departamento de Produtos Naturais e Alimentos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio De Janeiro, RJ, 21941-902, Brazil. [email protected] , (Brazil)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of plant research
Publication Date
Jan 06, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s10265-020-01246-4
PMID: 33403567
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The Swartzia species are commonly known as bloodwood due to the red exudate released from the stem after injury. This exudate has aroused great interest, and an integrative study is essential to describe it in detail. Thus, this work aimed to identify the red exudate's secreting-site in S. flaemingii and S. langsdorffii, and determine if it is a latex or a resin. Samples of the stem bark and the secondary xylem were prepared for histological analysis. Fresh exudates were dissolved in deuterated methanol and analyzed by 1H-NMR; other samples were resuspended in MeOH:H2O (9:1), partitioned with organic solvents and analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined spectrophotometrically, and antioxidant capacity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. The results showed that the exudate is a red latex produced by articulated laticifers located among the phloem cells. The latex is composed of sucrose, catechin glucosides, chlorophyll derivatives, and hederagenin-type saponins. Both samples of S. flaemingii and S. langsdorffii presented high amounts of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as a strong antioxidant capacity. The anatomical study showed that the secreting-site of the Swartzia red exudates were laticifers. This finding allows us to exclude other substances such as resin or oleoresin, generally produced by secretory cavities or ducts. Furthermore, since laticifers are rare in Fabaceae, this finding is significant, and represents an essential taxonomic feature. The showy red color is due to the large amounts of flavonoids. This latex probably has a protective role against microorganisms and photodamage. The bioactive potential of this exudate inspires further studies, which may boost the economic importance of Swartzia.

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