During the Altair MIR '93 mission we studied several parameters involved in blood volume regulation. The experiment was done on two cosmonauts before (B-60, B-30), during (D6, D12, D18 for French and D7, D12, D17 for Russian) and after the flight (R+1, R+3 and R+7). Space flight durations were different for two cosmonauts: for the Russian the flight duration was 198 days and for the French 21 days. On board the MIR station only urinary (volume and electrolytes, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and catecholamines) and salivary (cGMP and cortisol) samples were collected, centrifuged and stored in freezer. Lithium was used as a tracer to know exactly the 24 h urine output (CNES urine collection Kit). Before and after flight, blood was drawn with an epicite needle and vacutainer system for hormonal assays (renin, antidiuretic hormone, cGMP, ANP and aldosterone) in two positions: after 30 min rest in upright seated position and after 90 min of supine position. Salivary samples were collected simultaneously. During flight a decrease of diuresis and ANP and an increase of osmolality were found. No modifications of hematocrit, but an increase of salivary cGMP and cortisol were also observed. The decrease of urinary ANP is in favor of hypovolemia as described in previous flights. The postflight examinations revealed changes in fluid-electrolyte metabolism which indicate a hypohydration status and a stimulation of hormonal system responsible for water and electrolyte retention in order to readapt to the normal gravity.