A serious dichotomy currently exists in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and cancer research. Cancer is a disease that predominantly affects older people, yet there is a paucity of cancer research addressing the very unique needs of this population. Even basic biologic processes that exist in aging (decline in immune competency, increased sensitivities to therapies, etc.) are only beginning to be understood.Proportionally, the vast majority of cancer preclinical research does not involve the use of aged animals due to expense and time. This seriously hampers realistic extrapolation of preclinical findings to the general population affected by cancer. This report recommends research priorities that can help close the gaps in our understanding of aging as it relates to HSCT and cancer.