There is epidemiologic evidence of a relationship between calcium deficiency and hypertension. The present study evaluated the effects of alphacalcidol, a synthetic analogue of active vitamin D, given to 29 patients with marginal, intermittent hypercalcaemia. Before therapy there was an inverse relationship between serum calcium levels and diastolic blood pressure (p less than 0.02). Treatment with 1 microgram alphacalcidol raised the serum calcium by 0.07 mmol/l during a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and caused a significant reduction of diastolic blood pressure by 9.2 mmHg compared with placebo (p less than 0.01). The study extends previous observations, in normocalcaemic subjects, of inverse relationships between serum calcium and blood pressure indicating a primary disturbance of calcium homeostasis in hypertension. The observation that a physiologic amount of active vitamin D has hypotensive effects agrees with such a concept and suggests a new principle for the treatment of hypertension.