Glomerular capillary basement membrane thickness (BMT) was measured in 23 rats which had had streptozocin-induced diabetes for 14 months and in 12 age-matched controls. Diabetic rats were randomly allocated to different groups, either receiving no treatment or treated with a low carbohydrate diet or insulin, or both. Control rats were randomly allocated to a normal or low carbohydrate diet. Among the diabetic rats mean plasma glucose concentrations for the groups ranged from 27-4 mmol/l (494 mg/100 ml) in the untreated rats to 9-8 mmol/l (177 mg/100 ml) in those receiving both a low carbohydrate diet and insulin. A highly significant positive relation was found between BMT and plasma glucose concentration for individual rats. When BMT was corrected for body weight a similar relation was observed.